Are Mothers Penalized in the Workplace?

Do working mothers earn less than childless women in the South African labour market? This study examines whether there exists a motherhood (or child) penalty for Black African female employees in post-apartheid South Africa using two survey data from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) data between 2008 and 2014. NIDS is the first be the first nationally representative survey in South African to include comprehensive child birth history. Restricting analysis to women aged 20 to 49, the research paper applies various models to examine whether the mothers suffer poorer labour outcomes than their female counterparts in the workplace.


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